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Rajoni

Recording wartime damage, REL: How real can it be?

Recording wartime damage, REL: How real can it be?

The population, household and housing census, which will take place in Kosovo from April 5 to May 17, will enable citizens to declare, among other things, the damages caused by the war during the years 1998/1999 . Among the questionnaires, with which the Statistics Agency of Kosovo will be served during the registration process, is also the one about the damages from the war in family economies.

The data that will be collected in this context will only serve as an orientation framework for the institutions of Kosovo, says the acting director of KAS, Avni Kastrati. These data, according to him, will serve Kosovo's institutions to more easily identify cases of war crimes and damages.


"This is just a framework, a complement to other resources that Kosovo has, its organizations and institutions. This does not mean that we come out tomorrow with a report and say that 'there is so much damage'", says Kastrati for Radio Free Europe.

In addition to the damage to people, the KAS questionnaire aims to get answers from citizens about the destroyed properties, categorizing them according to the monetary value from 10 thousand euros to over 40 thousand euros. KAS will then create a database with data on war damages, declared by citizens. This database will be submitted to the Institute for crimes committed during the war in Kosovo, confirms the director of this institute, Atdhe Hetemi.

The information that will be extracted from the database created by KAS, according to him, will serve the institute for comparative analysis with the information that already exists regarding war crimes and property damage.

"Secondly, they serve us to make a kind of map, in which areas of Kosovo there were more damages or crimes, so that we, then, at the moment we start the work of collecting documents that prove the crimes committed during war in Kosovo, let's know where to focus", says Hetemi.

The documentation of war crimes in Kosovo is considered urgent by the Prime Minister of Kosovo, Albin Kurti, because "over the years we are losing witnesses". On Tuesday, he said that as part of the population census process, the questionnaire will enable citizens to testify about destroyed property, about damage to family members, whether they were killed, injured or missing in the period from 28 February 1998 to June 12, 1999.

Kastrati emphasizes that the data that can be collected from citizens' statements may not be real. But, according to him, KAS has no duty to verify the accuracy of these data. This task, according to him, belongs to commissions or other agencies of the Government of Kosovo.

"The commission then comes out and verifies them. They have work... This will take years, I don't believe they have it easy", says Kastrati.

Hetemi thotë, po ashtu, se autoritetet janë të vetëdijshme që mund të ketë deklarime të pasakta ose eventualisht të rrejshme nga qytetarët për shumat e caktuara që janë vendosur në pyetësor lidhur me pronën e shkatërruar.

Sipas tij, të dhënat për dëmet nga lufta, të deklaruara nga qytetarët, nuk do të konsiderohen me automatizëm si të mirëqena, për t’i futur në arkiv të institutit. Ato, siç thotë ai, do t’i nënshtrohen një lloj procesi të hulumtimit për verifikim të saktësisë së tyre. Këtë hulumtim, sipas tij, do ta bëjë instituti që ai drejton.

“Instituti nuk është institucion hetues, por institucion hulumtues. Nëse ka verifikim gjyqësor apo ligjor, atë mbase e bëjnë institucionet tjera, por jo ne. Ne i verifikojmë deri në atë masë sa na duhet për të vendosur se a mund t’i vendosim në arkivat tona dhe a mund t’i përdorim për qëllime të hulumtimit ose jo”, thotë Hetemi.

Muaj më parë, në prag të themelimit të Institutit për Hulumtimin e Krimeve të Kryera gjatë Luftës, kryeministri Kurti deklaroi se “Kosova ende nuk e di dëmin ekonomik, emocional dhe psikologjik që ia ka shkaktuar lufta e fundit”.

Më 30 mars, Kurti tha se autoritetet e Kosovës po përgatiten që Serbia të akuzohet si shtet përgjegjës “për krimet e kryera gjatë luftës në Kosovë, e që janë krime lufte, krime kundër njerëzimit dhe gjenocid”.

Deklarata e Kurtit u cilësua si kërcënuese nga presidenti i Serbisë, Aleksandar Vuçiq. Ai tha se Kurti tani do që t’i përdorë institucionet e Këshillit të Evropës për të iniciuar padi ndaj Serbisë. Vuçiq i bëri këto deklarata tri ditë pasi Kosova bëri një hap më afër anëtarësimit në Këshillin e Evropës.

Dritëro Arifi, profesor i Marrëdhënieve Ndërkombëtare në Kolegjin UBT në Prishtinë, thotë se institucionet e Kosovës duhet t’i mbledhin të dhënat dhe dokumentacionin e nevojshëm, si dhe të jenë të gatshme për një padi ndaj Serbisë për krime lufte dhe gjenocid në Kosovë.

Por, siç thotë ai, Kosova, aktualisht, nuk mund të ngrejë padi për gjenocid ndaj Serbisë. Padia për gjenocid, sipas tij, ngrihet në Gjykatën Ndërkombëtare të Drejtësisë, e cila ka selinë në Hagë.  Të drejtën e ngritjes së padisë së tillë e kanë vetëm shtetet anëtare të Organizatës së Kombeve të Bashkuara, pjesë e së cilës Kosova nuk është ende.

Megjithatë, siç thotë Arifi, padi ndaj shtetit të Serbisë mund të ngrenë qytetarët e Kosovës, në mënyrë individuale - qoftë për dëmin njerëzor, shpirtëror dhe material, vetëm pasi t’i kenë shteruar mundësitë ligjore në gjykatat vendore në Kosovë.

“Nëse personi është i pakënaqur me vendimin e gjykatave vendore të të gjitha shkallëve, atëherë mund t’i drejtohet Gjykatës në Strasburg për të drejtat e njeriut”, thotë Arifi.

He adds that such eventual cases would be difficult, as such processes take many years. Arifi emphasizes that if Kosovo joins the Council of Europe, then it can initiate the request for the approval of a resolution in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which would recognize the genocide of Serbia in Kosovo. Such a resolution, according to him, would not have a legal effect, but only a political one.

"The resolutions are not binding (legally). But, however, it is probably more of a moral and political victory than a legal one", emphasizes Arifi.

In the last war in Kosovo, about 13 thousand people were killed. According to the Kosovo authorities, 1,617 people still remain missing. About 70 people have been convicted of war crimes before local and international institutions, after the end of the war in Kosovo. War crimes in Kosovo were investigated by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) from 2000 to 2008, and then by the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX). In 2018, this mission submitted cases to the Kosovo Prosecutor's Office and local courts. REL