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Rajoni

On the eve of elections, critics of the Serbian state are targeted by military-level wiretapping

On the eve of elections, critics of the Serbian state are targeted by

Security researchers say two pro-democracy activists were subjected to a state-sponsored hacking attempt.

Critics of Serbia's nationalist government, who have documented the country's endemic corruption, were targeted by military-level wiretapping earlier this year, according to new findings by security researchers.

The hacking attempt by two Serbian pro-democracy activists, who have asked not to be named to protect their security, was ultimately unsuccessful because both individuals' Apple iPhones were updated to the latest iOS software, for which the researchers said protected the devices from outside infiltration attempts.

The individuals were first notified of the hacking attempt by Apple, which sent the two an alert that they may have been targeted by a state-sponsored actor. The warning was later confirmed following investigations by researchers at Access Now, the Share Foundation in Serbia, the Citizen Lab at the Munk School at the University of Toronto, and Amnesty International.

The findings come just months after researchers found that Russian journalists who are critical of Vladimir Putin and live in the European Union were also targeted with this level of wiretapping. The Council of Europe and the European Parliament have sought to advance policies that would curb the use of wiretapping, but the emergence of new cases within the bloc shows an apparent willingness by some European governments to continue using them to suppress and intimidate political critics.

Natalia Krapiva, technology legal advisor at Access Now, said:

"These findings are extremely disturbing for the rule of law and democracy in Serbia. The unchecked use of commercial eavesdropping is poisonous not only to human rights, but also to security and democratic institutions in any country."

The researchers found that the Serbs were targeted about a minute apart on or around August 16, 2023. Access Now and Citizen Lab discovered traces of the attempted attack, which sought to take advantage of a potential vulnerability in the iPhone's HomeKit app.

The researchers said the tactics were "consistent" with those previously used by Israel's NSO Group, which sells one of the world's most sophisticated cyber weapons, known as Pegasus. When Pegasus is successfully deployed against a target, it can essentially take over a mobile phone, including turning the phone into a portable listening device. It can also access information held in encrypted apps and view a user's photos and messages.

Studiuesit në rastin serb nuk mund të konfirmojnë përfundimisht se çfarë lloj përgjuesi është përdorur sepse treguesit e disponueshëm mjeko-ligjorë ishin të kufizuar.

“Ne nuk po ia atribuojmë këto sulme një operatori të caktuar në këtë kohë, por vërejmë se një dekadë e hetimeve të Citizen Lab kanë zbuluar se Serbia është një klient i rregullt për spiunët mercenar dhe teknologji të tjera të mbikëqyrjes komerciale”, tha John Scott-Railton.

Një studiues i vjetër në Citizen Lab NSO tha në një deklaratë për Guardian se raporti i Citizen Lab dhe Açess Noë nuk ishte “përfundimtar”. Kompania ka thënë vazhdimisht se Pegasus u shitet qeverive me qëllim që të përdoret në hetimet e krimeve të rënda dhe terrorizmit dhe se përdorimi i tij “shpëton jetë”.

Ai shtoi: “NSO nuk operon teknologjinë e saj dhe nuk është e fshehtë për inteligjencën e mbledhur”.

Ndërsa studiuesit nuk mund t’i atribuojnë përfundimisht tentativat për sulme në Serbi me një përgjues specifik, sulmet e tentuara ka të ngjarë të ripërtërijnë fokusin në gjetjet e kaluara që përfshijnë mbledhjen dhe mbikëqyrjen e fshehtë të të dhënave nga Agjencia e Informacionit të Sigurisë së Serbisë.

Drejtori më i fundit i BIA-s ishte Aleksander Vulin, i cili u vendos në një listë sanksionesh nga Thesari i SHBA-së në korrik 2023 për mbështetjen e tij ndaj Moskës dhe për përdorimin e “pozicioneve të tij politike për të ndërtuar mbështetje për aktivitetet malinje të Rusisë” dhe për të nxitur paqëndrueshmërinë në Serbi. Vulin dha dorëheqjen nga posti i tij më 3 nëntor.

Një viktimë e supozuar e tentativës së hakimit, e cila u intervistua nga Guardian e përshkroi punën e tyre si të përqendruar në të qenit kritik ndaj “regjimit autokratik” të Serbisë dhe “korrupsionit të përhapur” të vendit, si dhe politikës së jashtme pro-ruse të qeverisë aktuale, e cila nuk ka në linjë me BE-në për çështje të tilla si sanksionet kundër Moskës.

Përpjekja për hakerim, tha personi, ka të ngjarë të ishte një përpjekje për të frikësuar ose diskredituar punën e tyre, “për të gjetur diçka komprometuese kundër meje”.

Të dy individët që u vunë në shënjestër besonin se tentativat për hakmarrje mund të kishin qenë gjithashtu të lidhura me thirrjet për hetime zyrtare mbi trajtimin nga qeveria të një sulmi masiv që la 17 persona – përfshirë fëmijë – të vdekur verën e kaluar.

Mass demonstrations erupted after the shooting, with protesters condemning populist President Aleksandar Vucic, who was blamed for creating the divisions within the country that some claimed led to the mass shooting. The Serbian government did not respond to requests for comment./ The Guardian