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BREAKING NEWS

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Opinion / Editorial

Swiss neutrality and the war in Ukraine

Swiss neutrality and the war in Ukraine

When we talk about Switzerland, only two main words come to mind: banking and neutrality. Undoubtedly in relation to banks, Switzerland is the number 1 country in the world for banking security, because the Swiss banking system is one of the main violins in the framework of the world banking system, if not the most important in the world. And this good worldwide reputation rests on the political and economic stability of this small Alpine country, but with vital banking importance, as well as on the main activity of real estate management and the safe sector of sustainable investments, including the sector of social, health and car insurance companies. Here we can mention the two largest Swiss banking groups UBS and Credit Suisse, which are the largest banking groups in Switzerland and among the largest in the world. They are universal global heavyweight banks in this system. Over time, both UBS and Credit Suisse have included within their concern a number of traditional banks, which they have either merged into their own groups, or reorganized and integrated into specialized units. Both big banks lend billions to vital sectors such as the energy sector. As for neutrality, we can talk for a long time, because Swiss foreign policy had and has neutrality as its main pillar. Historically, this Swiss neutrality has helped enormously for peace and security in Europe, but also beyond Europe's borders. The main reason for this neutrality has been and will always remain the complete assurance of the country's independence and the inviolability of the national territory. According to this law, Switzerland does not participate in wars between other states. According to the domestic Constitution, the Federal Council (government) and the Federal Assembly take measures to protect Switzerland's neutrality. The authors of the constitution deliberately did not include neutrality in any article or in the principles of foreign policy, because the law of neutrality is codified in the Hague Convention of October 18, 1907 and that this law is part of customary international law. But what are the rights and obligations of a neutral state? According to the domestic Constitution, the Federal Council (government) and the Federal Assembly take measures to protect Switzerland's neutrality. The authors of the constitution deliberately did not include neutrality in any article or in the principles of foreign policy, because the law of neutrality is codified in the Hague Convention of October 18, 1907 and that this law is part of customary international law. But what are the rights and obligations of a neutral state? According to the domestic Constitution, the Federal Council (government) and the Federal Assembly take measures to protect Switzerland's neutrality. The authors of the constitution deliberately did not include neutrality in any article or in the principles of foreign policy, because the law of neutrality is codified in the Hague Convention of October 18, 1907 and that this law is part of customary international law. But what are the rights and obligations of a neutral state?

1. They are prohibited from participating in wars.

2. Provides self-defense.

3. to treat equally all warring parties in relation to the export of military armaments.

4. no warring party should provide mercenaries.

5. It must not make its territory available to warring parties.

Ligji i neutralitetit nuk zbatohet, në rast se Këshilli i Sigurimit i Kombeve të Bashkuara (OKB) autorizon një operacion ushtarak, sepse Këshilli i Sigurimit vepron në emër të bashkësisë ndërkombëtare për të rivendosur paqen botërore dhe sigurinë ndërkombëtare. Prandaj, ligji i neutralitetit nuk i pengon shtetet neutrale, që ato të përkrahin dhe të marrin pjesë në operacione të tilla ushtarake. Prandaj zbatimi i politikës së neutralitetit të një shteti varet gjithmonë nga një analizim i detajuar i situatës së mjedisit aktual ndërkombëtar. Kjo do të thotë, që neutraliteti shtetëror nuk kufizohet me norma ligjore, por ai bazohet mbi sigurimin e parashikueshmërisë dhe besueshmërisë së neutralitetit të përhershëm të një shteti. Zvicra e mbështet asnjanësinë e saj duke respektuar kërkesat e solidaritetit ndërkombëtar dhe duke e vënë atë në shërbim të paqes dhe prosperitetit ndërkombëtar. Por lind pyetja: A duhet të luajë Zvicra një rol më aktiv në luftën në Ukrainë? Sepse duhet pranuar, që deviza e politikës së jashtme zvicerane gjatë gjithë kësaj periudhë të luftës në Ukrainë ka qenë dhe është gjithmonë: “Harrojini armët!” Sepse sipas saj dërgimi i armëve në Ukrainë nuk është mënyra e duhur për përfundimin e luftës. Palët duhet të gjejnë rrugët dhe mënyrat për t` gjetur rrugëzgjidhjen në tavolinën e bisedimeve. Prandaj qeveria zvicerane pas diskutimesh të gjata vendosi “t’i përmbahej praktikës së mëparshme”, d.m.th. do të vazhdonte të mbetej neutrale. Pra, as qeveria dhe as parlamenti zviceran nuk treguan gatishmërinë të lehtësonin ligjin për materialet e luftës për Ukrainën. Ç`ka do të thoshte, që të gjitha shtetet, si Gjermania, Spanja, Danimarka, etj, që zotërojnë materialet ushtarake të prodhimit zviceran (tanket transportues personeli dhe municionet ushtarake Gepard të prodhuara në Zvicër) nuk do të lejohen t`i dërgojnë ato në Ukrainë. Pra, neutralitet, neutralitet, neutralitet. Por sa do të zgjasë kjo lloj situate me vendin alpin? – Ajo, çfarë unë prognozoj, është fakti, që do të vijë koha dhe momenti, kur Zvicra do t`i largohet politikës së saj të neutralitetit lidhur me çështjen e Ukrainës.