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Opinion / Editorial

The Assembly of Dibra on February 27, 1899, a great event in history

The Assembly of Dibra on February 27, 1899, a great event in history

The works of the Assembly of Dibra began with the large and open rally, which was held on February 27, 1899 in one of the squares outside the city (in the lawn called Qemanica), in which, according to various sources, 1,000 people participated. 1500 people from the Sanjak of Dibra and other Albanian villages. The rally took place under the leadership of young Ali Bey, the son of Sadik Pasha. As in the Assembly of Peja, also in that of Dibra, he announced the formation of the union (Itifaku) and the unification of the population of the sanjak of Dibra in the Albanian League of Peja. For this, the Decision (Karamameja) of 11 points of the Assembly of Peja was distributed publicly in many copies. With this act and with the reading of telegrams from other provinces of Albania, this meeting was closed. On the second day of February 28, the Assembly of Dibra or, "People's Assembly" as written in the "Communal Calendar 1899-1904, Events of 1899 in Albania", continued with various meetings in Sanjak of Dibra. 31 delegates from the Sanjak of Dibra participated, in addition to representatives of other provinces of Albania. As delegates of the Upper Dibra were Selim Rusi, Sefedin Pustina, Shaqir Jegeni, Nuredin Pustina, Kurtish Aga, as well as Beqir Tërshana, Osman Zajmi, Shaqir Daci, Riza Bey son of Iliaz Pasha, etc.; from the field Daut Murja, Dik Reçi, Haxhi Nasufi; from the Gorge; Bajram Markja, Jashar Dema, Shaban Dema, Tushe Lleshi; from Lower Dibra Jusuf Karahasani, Hasan Zajmi, Xhafer Caka, Hasan Kaloshi, Mehmet Kaçani, Xhafer Noka, Bajram Dulla, Ali Kaçani, Sheh Vlesha (Veleshta), .. from Mati; Kajmak Çela etc. The Assembly of Dibra drafted a Resolution of 22 points, which was announced at the second big meeting, which was held on March 16, 1899, with which its work ended. These decisions were also published to the Sultan with the telegram that was sent to him on behalf of the Assembly on March 16, 1899. As in other meetings of the League, the League Committee for Sanjak of Dibra emerged from the Assembly. In the Resolution of Dibra, the union of the population of this sanjak with the Albanian League of Peja was announced, blood feuds, hostilities, quarrels and arbitrariness over Muslim and Christian residents were prohibited. The Assembly expressed its willingness to gather voluntary military forces, which, like in Pejë, would be used only for the protection of Albania's borders from any possible Slavic-Russian attack. The population of the Sanjak of Dibra from the very beginning made 15,000 volunteers available to the Albanian League. In the Resolution of 22 points, sent to the Sultan's government, the aspirations of the Albanians organized in the new League to concentrate the internal administration of the country in their own hands were also presented. This Committee was clothed with the attributes that belonged to the state administration. The organization of the League Committees and their vesting with state functions, despite the expressions of loyalty to the Sultan, are evaluated as actions directed against the state authorities. Dibra patriots with a radical point of view exerted a strong influence on the actions of the Assembly, who were enamored with the ideas of the war for the independence of Albania. They saw the League as a military-political organization that would ensure the Albanian people's unity and national liberation. Opposing the actions of the Ottoman government authorities, who suppressed with violence and "the most iron strictness" any national feeling, the Albanian patriots of the sanjak of Dibra and other vilayets of Manastir defended the idea "that the rebirth of Albania could not be realized without strong shocks", that is, without armed struggle. Under the influence of this group, in secret meetings, a number of the most important political issues were discussed from those that were included in the official Resolution of 22 points. It was decided to work for the national union of the Albanian people, for unity and compactness "among all Albanian-speaking Muslim and Christian elements, regardless of religion, for the completely equal treatment of Christian and Muslim Albanians". It was acted with an open mind by the Committee of Dibra to unite with the Albanian Catholic population, and especially with that of Mirdita, it is about Abbot Prend Doçi in one of the relations he directed to Ballplatz in July 1899. In the report sent to Vienna by the Austrian consul in Bitola, Kral, evaluating the work of the Dibra Assembly, pointed out "the national and in some way anti-governmental character of the Dibra meeting and the issue of the Albanian League as a whole". For as long as the Albanian League exists in Dibër, public order and peace and all the commitments stemming from the proclamation of Bessa were established. So true is this that in Dibra peace was the same as in Europe, thanks to the work done by the League Committee which extended its authority by undertaking the defense of the country against any external attack and forced them to withdraw from Dibra two battalions of soldiers, which were sent to Manastir. The committee asked the sultan's palace to release Hamdi Ohrin, a Dibra living in Ohrid, who had been sentenced for 3 years for his activities in favor of the Albanian movement, from prison. The committee took measures for the cultivation of the Albanian language and for the opening of schools in which lessons would be held in the native Albanian language. The committee to achieve success took the finances into its own hands and established the national treasury. The committee would use the collected money for defense, to support poor families, those of national army fighters, to cultivate the Albanian language, to maintain Albanian schools, to help patriotic writers, etc. The Assembly of Dibra and the Committee that came out of it approved the call of the president of the Albanian League of Peja, Haxhi Zeka, for the organization in the spring of 1899 of a great National Assembly, where the whole of Albania would be represented. The committee decided that the Besa announced by the Assembly of Dibra should be extended for three years. Through Kadri Fishta (Dibra) he came into contact with the patriotic society of Bucharest, who asked to send a representative to help the Albanian League more closely. At the beginning of March 1899, the Committee of Dibra sent its representatives to Manastir, Korçë, Elbasan, Tirana and the vilayet of Ioannina. The decisions were secretly announced to the provinces closest to the Sanjak of Dibra and especially Elbasan, Tirana, Berat, Starova, Korça, then Ohrid, Manastir, Kîrçovo, Përlep, etc.. whose population fully approved them and expressed the desire for to join the Albanian League. The delegation of the population would consist of 5 people and would be headed by Selim Rusi and two Matians, while the Catholic population of the Sanjak of Dibra would be represented by the vovoda of Lura, Kolë Bibë Doçi. Informing about these efforts that the Albanian patriots made in the spring of 1899, for the unification of different parts of Albania, the Austrian consul in Bitola, Kral, wrote that the Tuscans are working seriously for the union with the North and, as their relations with Dibra show , since now they are in contact with them. "All these things that are happening in Albania, Kral wrote to Ballplaz, - will be the beginnings of a great national movement of the Albanian people, the goal of which will be national liberation. After the exchange of opinions between the committees of the League in different parts of Albania, it was decided that the Albanian General Assembly, or the Great Meeting, would be held on June 3 in Babib Most near Pristina. In the report that the Abbot of Mirdita, P. Doçi, forwarded to Vienna, through the Austrian Consul General in Shkodra, Ippen wrote "about the efforts of important people from Christians and Muslims of Dibra, Mati, Shkodra and other places for the establishment of the general Faith between Muslim and Christian Albanians, to lead the national movement and to develop the idea of ??autonomy". Despite the oppressive measures of the High Gate, Albanian patriots continued to insist on holding the General Assembly. When the Sultan stopped his meeting which was scheduled to be held in Kosovo at the beginning of June, the Dibra patriots proposed to the Committee of the Albanian League that the Assembly be held in Dibra. One of the main foci of the armed resistance against the Ottoman administration became the sanjak of Dibra in the vilayet of Manastir. The High Gate started oppressive measures by placing Ottoman subordinates in the vilayet courts. Petitions were signed with the signature of 800 people protesting against the establishment of Ottoman courts. Other protests were also sent to the Sultan's palace. The movement against the establishment of the Ottoman courts began to turn into an armed uprising against the government as a whole. The people went on a demonstration against the Ottoman authorities. On October 17, markets were closed in the entire Sanjak of Dibra. Faced with this situation, the High Gate concentrated large military forces in Dibër. In November, two imperial emissaries were sent to Dibër, General Hasan Tahsin Pasha who was Albanian and the sultan's adjutant. Talat Pasha and Hasan Tahsini were sent to suppress the uprising and the Albanian League. On November 6, the Albanian Education Committee of Dibra, which functioned as an organ of the Albanian League, sent a memorandum to the Sultan, in which it was emphasized and requested to establish an Albanian school in Dibra. On behalf of the Education Committee, the commemoration was signed by Shyqyri Çoku, grandson of Iliaz Pa?e Dibra, Hamdi Ohri and many other patriots. On November 11, the population of Dibra rose again. The imperial emissaries, after they could not subdue the insurgent Albanians, were forced to secretly leave Dibra for Istanbul on the night of November 11-12. The insurgents then attacked the mytesarif's office and the army barracks, where the mytesarif and Ottoman subordinates were hiding. The number of insurgents reached over 12,000 in the entire sanjak of Dibrès, as the Austrian consul Kral in Manastir informs, so this became the heart of the anti-Ottoman armed resistance. Haxhi Zeka again made another attempt to unite all the forces of the Albanian League in March 1900, he went to Dibër. In Dibër, there was a discussion about the connection of Besa, which was expected to be established for a longer period of time, at least for 5 years. In the meetings of Dibra and Kosovo, it was not possible to take Besa, because the opposition of the Ottoman authorities, who used all kinds of ways and methods, tools and intrigues and deceptions, as well as a great military power, led to the fall of the Albanian League. The international situation did not favor the Albanian factor, so this was also one of the causes of the extinction of the Albanian League. The impact that this national movement of the Albanian Renaissance had in the years 1899-1900 was extraordinary, because it became a model of inspiration for the outbreak of the great Uprisings of the years 1910-1912 that led to the declaration of the independent Albanian state (albeit with borders of truncated) on 28 November 1912. on the night of November 11-12, they were forced to secretly leave Dibra for Istanbul. The insurgents then attacked the mytesarif's office and the army barracks, where the mytesarif and Ottoman subordinates were hiding. The number of insurgents reached over 12,000 in the entire sanjak of Dibrès, as the Austrian consul Kral in Manastir informs, so this became the heart of the anti-Ottoman armed resistance. Haxhi Zeka again made another attempt to unite all the forces of the Albanian League in March 1900, he went to Dibër. In Dibër, there was a discussion about the connection of Besa, which was expected to be established for a longer period of time, at least for 5 years. In the meetings of Dibra and Kosovo, it was not possible to take Besa, because the opposition of the Ottoman authorities, who used all kinds of ways and methods, tools and intrigues and deceptions, as well as a great military power, led to the fall of the Albanian League. The international situation did not favor the Albanian factor, so this was also one of the causes of the extinction of the Albanian League. The impact that this national movement of the Albanian Renaissance had in the years 1899-1900 was extraordinary, because it became a model of inspiration for the outbreak of the great Uprisings of the years 1910-1912 that led to the declaration of the independent Albanian state (albeit with borders of truncated) on 28 November 1912. on the night of November 11-12, they were forced to secretly leave Dibra for Istanbul. The insurgents then attacked the mytesarif's office and the army barracks, where the mytesarif and Ottoman subordinates were hiding. The number of insurgents reached over 12,000 in the entire sanjak of Dibrès, as the Austrian consul Kral in Manastir informs, so this became the heart of the anti-Ottoman armed resistance. Haxhi Zeka again made another attempt to unite all the forces of the Albanian League in March 1900, he went to Dibër. In Dibër, there was a discussion about the connection of Besa, which was expected to be established for a longer period of time, at least for 5 years. In the meetings of Dibra and Kosovo, it was not possible to take Besa, because the opposition of the Ottoman authorities, who used all kinds of ways and methods, tools and intrigues and deceptions, as well as a great military power, led to the fall of the Albanian League. The international situation did not favor the Albanian factor, so this was also one of the causes of the extinction of the Albanian League. The impact that this national movement of the Albanian Renaissance had in the years 1899-1900 was extraordinary, because it became a model of inspiration for the outbreak of the great Uprisings of the years 1910-1912 that led to the declaration of the independent Albanian state (albeit with borders of truncated) on 28 November 1912.