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Opinion / Editorial

Bulgaria – the cradle of the Slavic alphabet and writing

Bulgaria – the cradle of the Slavic alphabet and writing

Every year, on May 24, Bulgaria honors the great work of Cyril and Methodius. May 24 is the day of the Bulgarian alphabet, education and culture. It is one of the most beautiful Bulgarian national holidays, which honors letters and writing by placing them on the pedestal, in their deserved place, because they are the basis of everything, the genesis of knowledge and culture, of progress and walking towards the light. Even in the holy scripture it is not for nothing that it is said: In the beginning was the word.

Over 1100 years ago, Bulgaria and its leaders understood the importance of letters and the weight of the written word. With this difficult but vitally important mission for the Bulgarian state, the Bulgarian prince, Boris I (first half of century IX-May 2, 907) took on himself. It was the time when the two brothers from the surroundings of Thessaloniki, Cyril (born as Constantine: 826-869) and Medotus (815-885) had started their mission of spreading writing and the Christian religion in Moravia. Both brothers were educated at the "Magnaura" school, the best in the Byzantine Empire at the time. For this purpose, they also designed a new alphabet, with new letters, which was unique and different from the Latin and Greek ones. The alphabet was called Gllagolica. For its drafting and to make it as understandable as possible for the Slavs, they based themselves on the speech of the Bulgarian Slavs from the surroundings of Thessaloniki, a dialect they knew in detail. Their mother Marija was Bulgarian. In Moravia (today part of several Central European states) the two brothers managed to prepare their students, but after their death their mission in that country failed and perhaps today history would not write and weave glory for them, if some of their students, raped and expelled from Moravia, would not have been saved and accepted in Bulgaria by Prince Boris. The prince welcomes the disciples of Cyril and Methodius and in this way he saves their great work from extinction. Prof. Rozhe Bernar rightly points out that "By saving the work of St. Cyril and St. Methodius, Bulgaria has won the gratitude and respect not only of the Slavic peoples, but also of the world. And this will be true as long as humanity values ??the words progress, culture and humanity...“. With this action, Prince Boris showed that he was not only a good military leader, but above all, a great visionary. Thus the Gllagolica or Gllagolic alphabet, created by St. Cyril and St. Methodius sometime around 855, became the first Bulgarian alphabet. This is an original graphic system based on the Bulgarian dialect of the surroundings of Thessaloniki. They managed to find a special letter for each sound of this dialect. The name of this alphabet comes from the word "glagolla" which means "word" and since "glagollati" means "speak", the gllagolic alphabet has been poetically called "signs that speak". All letters have their names. They also have numerical value. The first translations from Greek but also the original works in Old Bulgarian were written in the Glagolitic alphabet. Under the patronage of Prince Boris I himself, the students of Cyril and Methodius were not only received with great honors in Pliska (d. 886), the first capital of Bulgaria, but they were provided with excellent conditions to develop educational and literary activities . The first literary and cultural centers were established in Bulgaria – first in Pliska, and then in Veliki Preslav, Bulgaria's second capital. Prince Boris I and later his successors understood very well the need to spread Christianity among Bulgarians in their native language, therefore they provided large financial assistance for the translation and publication of church books in Bulgarian, for the preparation of clergy to conduct services in the Bulgarian language and not Greek and later the creation of the independent Bulgarian church. The Glagolitic alphabet and writings in the native language with this alphabet became the main pillars of the state and the spiritual identity of the Bulgarians. In addition to Pliska and Preslav, another important center of Bulgarian writing and culture was born, in the west of what was then Bulgaria, in the city of Ohrid. Quite well-known names worked in these centers, such as Klimenti, Naumi (students of Cyril and Methodius), Joan Ekzarhu, Konstantin Preslavski, Chernorizec Hrabër, Simeon, who later became the king of Bulgaria, who created a rich literature and diverse, translated and original, which contains in itself all the genres of medieval Christian literature.

Në fund të shekullit të IX në Mbretërinë e Parë Bullgare krijohet alfabeti i dytë bullgar, i njohur si alfabeti cirilik (bullgarisht: ????????). Emri vjen nga emri i Shën Kirilit dhe është vënë në mënyrë simbolike për të treguar vazhdimësi me veprën e pavdekshme të tij, krijimin e gllagolikut dhe përhapjen e krishterimit. Të gjithë shkencëtarët pranojnë origjinën bullgare të këtij alfabeti, ndërsa si shkollë, ku mendohet se është krijuar, është ajo e Preslavit. Mbështetja kryesore vjen nga mbreti Simeon, i njohur ndryshe dhe si Simeoni i Madh. Shumë studiues janë të mendimit se Simeoni ose Klimenti i Ohrit mund të jenë krijuesit e alfabetit të ri bullgar. Alfabeti cirilik përmban 24 shkronja nga alfabeti grek dhe 12 të tjera që janë të ngjashme me ato gllagolike, të cilat korrespondojnë me tingujt e veçantë të gjuhës bullgare. Alfabeti i ri ishte shumë më i lehtë dhe i thjeshtë për t’u përvetësuar dhe përdorur sesa gllagoliku. Të dy alfabetet ngelën në përdorim për një kohë të gjatë, derisa në shekullin e XII alfabeti cirilik zëvendësoi plotësisht atë gllagolik. Ky i fundit u përdor deri vonë në Dalmaci me atë formën e vet karakteristike i quajtur edhe si „kroat“ ose „dalmat“. Ciriliku ashtu si dhe gllagoliku nga Bullgaria filloi të përhapej shumë shpejt edhe drejt vendeve të tjera sllave. Dy alfabetet bullgare janë një moment i rëndësishëm në historinë e Bullgarisë dhe në botën sllave. Ato ndikuan në krijimin e gjuhës së parë letrare sllave, bullgarishtes së vjetër, e cila u bë gjuha e tretë klasike mesjetare evropiane. Nëpërmjet kësaj gjuhe u lëvrua dhe letërsia e vjetër bullgare, e cila hodhi themelet e një civilizimi të tretë në Evropë, krahas atij grek dhe latin, civilizimit të Ortodoksisë Sllavo-bullgare. Kështu Bullgaria në mesjetë arrin majat e kulturës evropiane, shekullin e saj të artë, duke ia dalë që jo vetëm të mbijetojë në fqinjësi me perandorinë më të fuqishme të kohës, por edhe të rrezatojë kulturë në botën sllave dhe jo vetëm. Kultura mesjetare bullgare ia doli të thyejë dogmat e tri gjuhësisë së kohës, sipas së cilës fjala e zotit mund të përhapej vetëm në tri gjuhë – hebraisht, greqisht dhe latinisht. Edhe bullgarishtja e vjetër arriti të bëhet gjuha e kishës. Ajo arriti t’i mbijetojë edhe pushtimeve dhe të mbajë zgjuar gjithnjë shpirtin e popullit bullgar. Jo më kot akademiku rus Dmitrij Lihaçov thotë se, shteti bullgar u pushtua nga Bizanti dhe u zhduk nga harta politike e Evropës, por ngeli “Shteti shpirtëror“. Sot më shumë se 300 milionë njerëz në Evropë dhe Azi përdorin cirilikun si alfabetin e tyre. Përsëri falë Bullgarisë, që nga viti 2007 alfabeti cirilik bullgar u bë sistemi i tretë grafik i Bashkimit Evropian, krahas atij latin dhe grek. Edhe në Shqipëri ka filluar përdorimi i alfabetit cirilik bullgar. Në këtë alfabet mësojnë të shkruajnë dhe lexojnë në gjuhën e nënës fëmijët me origjinë bullgare nga zonat e Gorës (Kukës), Gollobordës dhe Prespës, që frekuentojnë shkollat e fundjavës në gjuhën bullgare në qytetet Tiranë, Elbasan dhe Korçë, të organizuara nga shoqatat e minoritetit bullgar në vend. Pra më 24 maj-Dita e shkrimit, arsimit dhe kulturës, bullgarët duhet ta ndjenë veten krenarë, sepse nëpërmjet alfabetit ata përhapën dritën e dijes në më shumë se 50 kombësi- nga Siberia e largët dhe deri në zemër të Evropës.