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Opinion / Editorial

 Can we continue to live and build without security?

 Can we continue to live and build without security?

 About two years have passed since the terrible earthquake of November 2019, and it seems that the risk of seismic tremors, the risk of catastrophes, has gone away with time. But "mother nature" is a little more "careful" than us. She gave us the signal days ago in Debar, "greeting" us and remembering that she is there and everywhere. Not at all under the threat of tremors, in June of last year, at dawn on the 24th in Florida (Miami), USA, they sank terribly, without any kind of earthquake tremors, within a few seconds on the suspicious ground of a building 12-storey residential building (built 40 years ago, in 1981) killed about 150 citizens. What happened? "Nothing" other than the indifference of citizens, who in 2018 (a year ago) were informed that in the building have appeared very disturbing signs in its construction, in the part of the foundations! Earthquakes and catastrophes in general, leave traces of destruction, especially in those cases when the construction is not done according to the "predetermined" parameters, design norms. As for depreciation, there is not even a force to stop it. He, is not a coincidence in his appearance. Over 90 percent of conventional construction theoretically has a depreciation period of 100 years. After that, the building or building that has reached this "age" does not even bear any kind of "responsibility" for what happens next. It, the building has performed the "mission", has withstood permanent and temporary static loads, dynamic forces, erosion below ground and above ground and at an unknown moment "melts". which in cases of ranks like our country are never guaranteed. Which means that at best everything is a debt to be repaid, and in the ordinary case, thousands of unprepared citizens are left out in the open for decades, as in much richer and more developed countries than we are. . We must never forget the fact that life, in the face of this supernatural force like earthquake, is negligible, it is zero, if before you fix it, living, you do not consider the truth about the relation of its consequences to us. In our country, where the spirit of social solidarity almost does not officially exist. The market economy, precisely because it is a market economy, "hates" this relationship. This is the question that should torment us and should make us think about the answer to the fatal question "did we survive" or not, if we hope for the magic word "saved". We have not "escaped"! We have "inserted our heads like ostriches in the sand", and often we do not have the courage to look the truth in the eye! True salvation comes only when the phenomenon is known, studied and preceded. "How will it be designed and built after these earthquakes?" The question is quite normal, but unfortunately paradoxical in the conditions of our country. As the question "how do we currently design and build" has not yet received a correct answer. We design "bad"! I put the adverb in quotation marks badly, as the truth is that our designers do the maximum possible. It is designed based on European norms "Eurocode", but these simply as such. As they, "Eurocodes" have not been adapted for Albania, they have not been turned into technical conditions of design and implementation. Which means that in our country it is designed without technical conditions, which have legal force. In Albania he does not conduct genuine geological studies. The building in many cases is located on a partially or completely unknown plot. There is also a lack of anti-seismic study. It completes the routine, based on seismic maps performed before the 1990s. There is a lack of institutional control over the quality of construction works. This control, today is presumed to derive from the obligation to theoretically appoint supervisors of works. But what those who do these jobs oversee and how they do it, no one asks. The construction sector has been given complete design and implementation freedom to extend as wide and as high as it wants, but it has not been regulated by laws and proper practice, to fully guarantee the quality of necessary. In short, for many justifiable and unjustifiable reasons, the quality of constructions in our country today is questionable, with significant legal and organizational shortcomings, which from the point of view of the interests of the citizen constitutes a flagrant violation of his right to live in safe and quiet. No kind of law "invented" by the state administration can replace the gap and the "debt" where it, the administration has entered in relation to these rights. Today, not only is no one worried, but it is also not perceived that you can buy, and moreover you can move in somewhere, when it, the apartment is not secured, first in accordance with the projected scale to the intensity of earthquakes and second to the degree of depreciation of the apartment, intervention in it to be at the normal level of its technical security against various factors. And that is why our state must start a new and very serious chapter with insurance companies, to lead the way to a multifaceted solution to this troubling problem until "death". Undoubtedly insurance companies can not duplicate, or compensate for the work and functions of the state. But the state itself is obliged and interested, based on the necessity and international practice, to promote the way of building housing through their compulsory provision, nationwide. By force? It is a fact, in fact unacceptable and inhuman, to compulsorily insure the vehicle and not to compulsorily insure the apartment where they live no less than 65 percent of the time. I think that if there is some kind of mechanism or institution that should stand in front of the citizen, the client and in addition to his interest, he is precisely the institution of insurance companies. Who else but him? It is clear that this idea, not unknown and discussed at other times, requires not only organizational but also financial preparation to be implemented. But if the ultimate goal is clear, the tactics of reaching it though are found with problems. First, it cannot be accepted that a building, where it is built and inhabited, is not necessarily secured by at least two factors, earthquakes and depreciation. Second, buying and selling, exchanging, renting or even donating an apartment or building can not be accepted as a legal action if it is not secured. Third, if it is not possible immediately, with at least one goal (let's say within five years), this type of mechanism should be set in full motion through legal and economic levers, where the state should mediate and compensate in special cases the funds needed for the account and according to all different social groups. Is this an unaffordable economic move? I am presenting a rough calculation, based on known data such as: average construction cost of an apartment maximum 340 euro / m2, average area of ??an apartment 78 m2, value of supplementary works 30 percent of the value of basic construction, the ratio of DS1 and DS2 breakdowns to new apartments 1 to 20 and the cycle of breakdowns caused by the earthquake effect once every 27.5 years. With these data, based on the knowledge given by the earthquake of April 1979, with those of September and November 2019, as well as on the condition that everyone who has a house or economic and social unit must insure it not voluntarily but compulsorily from earthquake damage, it turns out that in a year the payment is approximately 25 euros, about six times less than the insurance of the vehicle. Always remember: in Albania in many cases anyone can concrete! Plenty of sacks of cement, gravel, shovels along with their workers and mixing them with water is called concrete. Layered concrete and reinforced concrete, any type of concrete of any brand can be "produced" here. It is produced at any hour of the day or night, in heat or frost, on the ground or on the terrace, at sea or in the mountains, anywhere. Waterproofing, welding, masonry, plastering, sewerage and water supply ... everything that is predicted by the "design" mind of the master who has "erected palaces" in Greece and Italy. From the point of view of realizing the quality of constructions, we work as if we have the most advanced order in the galaxy: everything depends solely on the conscience of the builders. Do not forget: to provide the car and the house with about 140 euros per year, you have left it in the "hands of the master" and in that of the plumber who also works as an electrician and in the afternoon plasters or lays tiles, this is heavy for the state, unworthy of you and danger to the family. Is that so or not, so is it time to secure everything that is built in the country and what does this value really represent? It is worthwhile to make possible the discussion of this topic by the relevant specialists. First, no one is obligated to pay for the construction of anyone’s home unless they provide it. Secondly by paying yourself, Undoubtedly, the reinvestment process, in addition to being fully guaranteed, will be much more controlled by the risk of corruption or by the lack of control over the works and their quality, and thirdly, it is unfair and outside any kind of social norms. buy, live or work etc. in uninsured buildings, which generally mean not only financing guarantees in extreme cases, but also quality guarantees before the guarantee itself is obtained. You can not agree to guarantee a construction, which itself is built outside the technical and urban planning rules. An apartment that is artificially added sideways or in height cannot be guaranteed unless the initial design has provided for this. You can not give a building permit without first consulting the body that will provide the construction insurance you provide.