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Opinion / Editorial

Is there a real intellectual elite in Albania?

Is there a real intellectual elite in Albania?

Much has been said about the elites, who should lead the country and give it the opportunity to move forward on the best possible path in order for the country to prosper and integrate with the world, mainly the western one. The word Elite itself comes from the French - "eslire", or from the Latin "eligere", which means chosen (https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/elite). Intellectual elites are prominent intellectuals or superior intellectuals as a class also called the country's intelligence. According to sociologist Mills, the intellectual elite consists of political leadership, military leaders, the corporate elite (or the economic-financial and banking elite), in which age generally plays a role, gender, mainly men, the predominant ethnicity, education of top, and socio-cultural clubs or associations. In Albania, the biggest problem has been who has represented the Albanian ruling elite over the years and what solutions it has given to the country. Certainly by Elite is meant some powerful, rich or talented people, within a particular group, particular country or a particular society, so by elite it refers to the best and most capable people of a social group respectively. So this elite consists of intellectuals, who form this group and in this intellectual elite are included cultural intellectual elite, political intellectual elite, cultural cultural elite, military intellectual elite, but also religious and others which in many cases isolate themselves. from the rest of the social groups (https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-betëeen-a-cultural-elite-and-an-intellectual-elite). Usually, this intellectual elite runs the country through the political elite. In short, we can say that in Albania, the intellectual elite has changed a lot over the years. If during the Ottoman rule, the Albanian intellectual elite was modeled on the model of the national renaissance in order to create an independent Albania and a genuine Albanian state, in which the cultural elite was the driving force to create such an Albania, there were in that period even military leaders who created squads to fight and liberate the country, even religious individuals of all three religions who supported this strategy. Elites can never be hereditary as was the case in the monarchies of different countries of the world. From this intellectual elite emerged the political elite, which tried to run the country under the leadership of Ismail Qemali. Although the Independence of Albania was realized through the decisions of the great powers, which created a fragmented Albanian state, because the creation of a strong state is realized by the binomial Homeland + Religion, Albania remained a weak state because one side of the binomial did not exist as a whole, causing an abnormal direction of the country, either because of the interventions of European countries, or because of the neighbors who attracted communities according to religious traditions and those who ruled these communities, but also because of the artificial placement in towards the country of people who were not suitable, but who were paid by others to keep their place in anarchy, as Noli described in his article on the five Anarchies: First, religious anarchy: four different, rootless religions in the heart of a pagan people. The second, social anarchy: here there is neither a class of beys, nor a class of peasants, nor a class of bourgeoisie. Third moral anarchy: Here the ignorant knows everything and the incompetent is good at everything. Fourth, patriotic anarchy: here within a day, as if by magic, the traitor becomes the patriot and the traitor the patriot. Fifth, the anarchy of ideals: here the ideals are dark, twisted and mummified of Fanari and Bukhara, swarming and clashing in a mortal struggle with the vivid, elegant and bright ideals of the West. These kinds of Anarchies accompanied the truncated Albanian state from its creation until the establishment of the regime of Enver Hoxha, despite the fact that in the time of King Zog, the above-mentioned anarchies were legitimized through the establishment of an ignorant gendarmerie. In the time of King Zog, the intellectual elite spread everywhere in the Balkans, Europe and the USA, had the opportunity to breathe partly due to the state interest to approach them in running the state. During the National Liberation War, the Albanian intellectual elite was factorized and turned into a nationalist elite that supported the occupier because they offered an Ethnic Albania by becoming traitors to the country. The rest of the intellectual elite joined the Democratic Front and the National Liberation Army, which was supported by the three major WW2 allies: the US-USSR-Great Britain. It is known that the nationalist elite gives birth to chauvinism and chauvinism gives birth to prejudice, fanaticism and racism ((https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-a-cultural-elite-and-an-intellectual-elite) such has been former quisling Prime Minister Merlika, a first-class chauvinist and racist despite his knowledge. During the dictatorship that lasted 45 years, a new intellectual elite was formulated, which excluded the old pre-war elite. This new intellectual elite relied primarily on the cultural elite and the military elite, but excessive sentences and executions distorted the intellectual elite over time. Thus was formed a deformed intellectual elite led by the political Elite of that time composed of workers, peasants, or who had graduated from the party school, honored but without school or culture. When the communist system came to an end, because Gorbachev of the USSR in the Reykjavik agreement with Reagan, and with the decisions of Katowice dissolved the Communist Bloc, with the demolition of the Berlin Wall. This caused a wave of hatred against the regime in Albania and, of course, its dissolution. The collapse of the communist dictatorship in Albania had some negative features, which as we are seeing today 30 years later, the Albanian state remained weak, with a new political system, but devilishly created by Ramiz Alia, who placed chess pieces, former secretaries and former security guards, at the head of new pluralist parties, so that political, economic and financial power would continue to remain in the hands of the class of former party leaders and their henchmen . It is known that Albania with the collapse of communism did not have real dissidence, but only dissatisfied people, people put by the ALP to be removed as dissatisfied, the politically persecuted, who surprisingly approximately half of them were supporters of communism, but convicted from communism; the only person actually and legally dissident remained Pjetër Arbnori, an honorable man, who after his release from prison was elected by the DP as Speaker of the Assembly. Even Kadare, promoted and strongly supported by the dictatorship with some leading political offices, but rather a court talent, instigated by R.Alia, pretended to flee the country in the middle of the '90s, but again this person could not become representative of a new system and remained like the night owl, between the two worlds cursing what he had licked some time ago and licking what he had cursed in the time of democracy. Thus, the intellectual elite in Albania remained a pseudo-elite with people who were removed and put on according to the appetites of party leaders. A very negative factor remained and remains the emigration of the population (drain brain), which influenced and influences the failure to achieve political stability and consequently the failure to create a stable intellectual elite in Albania. Not having a real elite in Albania even in the Albanian territories that have been included in other countries, those five anarchies of Noli have continued to prevail once and for all and leaving Albania for 30 years in an unstable state with major political and social conflicts, as in the years '90 -'91, '97 -'98, 2007 and at any moment of local or parliamentary elections. As a result, during this time the professional hierarchy, meritocracy was destroyed, and under the justification that Albania was under a brutal communist dictatorship, the law, property were underestimated, militant local and central government and the so-called "provincial intellectuals" were appointed () villagers), who severely damaged the administration, institutions, and even the Academy of Sciences. Today, despite the efforts, the intellectual elite consists of the false political elite, the pseudo-cultural elite, dominated by dictatorship reminiscences, and individuals enriched by `sweat on the forehead`, for whom vetting seems to make the necessary cleansing in politics and everywhere. where there have been serious violations of the law. Only in this way can today's intellectual elite become real, certainly acting as King Zog, who at that time managed to gather the best possible Albanian intellectual people from abroad. dominated by reminiscences of dictatorship and by individuals enriched by `sweat on the forehead`, for whom vetting seems to make the necessary cleansing in politics and wherever there have been serious violations of the law. Only in this way can today's intellectual elite become real, certainly acting also like King Zog, who managed at that time to gather the best possible Albanian intellectual people from abroad. dominated by reminiscences of dictatorship and by individuals enriched by `sweat on the forehead`, for whom vetting seems to make the necessary cleansing in politics and wherever there have been serious violations of the law. Only in this way can today's intellectual elite become real, certainly acting also like King Zog, who managed at that time to gather the best possible Albanian intellectual people from abroad.