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Ekonomia

This is how pensions will be increased and the plan being followed for changing the retirement age, the director of the Social Security Institute breaks down all the uncertainties about the third age

This is how pensions will be increased and the plan being followed for changing

Astrit Hado, the general director of the Social Insurance Institute, spoke about the pension scheme in Albania and the problems faced by the elderly. In a television interview, Mr. Hado spoke about the state budget that goes to increasing pensions and the plans they have for the future, starting from the change in the retirement age and the equalization of village and city pension incomes.

-Mr. Hado, is there any campaign from time to time on your part to attract a little attention of young people regarding the value of pensions?

History and life has shown quite the opposite, that pensions provided by pension schemes are one of the main elements of living in the third age and is the main factor in reducing poverty in the third age, that is, if we take into account that this year we have a budget of around 1.8 billion euros, 180 billion new lek and about 160 billion go to pensions, imagine what impact it has on the social life of the third generation. We have almost 27% of the state budget, so the ISSH budget is almost 26-27% of the state budget, it is a large amount of money which is distributed to over 700 thousand families who are the main means of living for pensioners. The total budget of the institute is 1.8 billion euros, which is equivalent in value to ¼ and 27% of the state budget. Because the institute in its activity deals with benefits that are of the nature of contributions derived from paid contributions such as pensions, family disability, pregnancies, illnesses, accidents at work and at the same time deals with some special social programs that the government has decided such as: electricity compensation for pensioners, bread price compensation, minimum income compensation, veterans, martyrs of the fatherland, war invalids, special treatments of miners, special treatments of the military industry, supplementary statuses, oil workers, miners, professors ... all these constitute the social security budget, while the social security fund is only for that category that are paid for profits based on the contribution. This year, out of the 180+ billion ALL that we have planned, 134 billion ALL are expected to be direct contributions. The net deficit of the pension branch is in the order of 18 billion new ALL, which is about 0.85% of the GDP and in relation to the expenses, which are about 12-13% of the social security fund. This deficit has decreased in 2014, when we started the pension reform, we had a deficit in relation to GDP somewhere around 1.9-1.95% and they had a tendency to increase, and one of the reasons that the 2014 reform was undertaken was to curb the growth of the deficit and increase of the financial sustainability of the scheme. From that moment and today, 10 years have passed, the deficit has decreased from 1.95 to 0.85 of GDP, and it is claimed that this year we will have a decrease in the deficit again. Which means that this increases the financial sustainability of the scheme, the scheme becomes more and more stable, it walks more and more on its own two feet. The ISSH fund has a separate budget called a special fund that is approved together with the state budget by the parliament. I mentioned that figure to show the importance and weight of the budget which is transferred to family accounts so that people can have a more dignified life. I want to mention that the whole public and especially young people should understand that you don't think about retirement the moment you reach retirement age, but you have to think about it the moment you enter the labor market,because at the moment you retire, you can be very smart, you can have a lot of desire and maybe you will pay, contribute, but you don't have the physical ability and time to do such a thing because you are reaching the age to go out pension then you will only do the calculations, you have worked for so many years, you have paid so many contributions, you will receive this pension. There is no space, there is no possibility to change anything. Things are changed by contributing continuously from the moment you enter the labor market until you terminate the employment relationship and contribute with real wages and not be lied to with a not so good agreement with the employer by taking a part and getting it declared and the other not.

-Aspekti demografik na thotë sipas statistikave që një në katër shqiptarë është pensionist?

Nuk është tamam 1 në 4. Varet se në çfarë këndvështrimi do e shikojmë. Do e shikojmë në raport me rezidentët apo do e shikojmë në raportme totalin e qytetarëve shqiptarë të regjistruar në regjistrin kombëtar të shtetasve. Të gjithë ata qytetarë shqiptarë që kanë marrë nënshtetësi gjermane dhe austriake, që janë dy vende që nuk e lejojnë dyshtetësinë kanë lënë nënshtetësinë shqiptare dhe e marrin pensionin. Ne në ligjin tonë të sigurimeve shoqërore nuk e trajtojmë individin kontribuues në bazë shtetësie, e kemi në ligj që mbrojmë të gjithë ata që janë të punësuar, vetëpunësuar ose punëdhënës, kemi dhe një nen të veçantë me të cilin mbrojmë edhe qytetarët e huaj sidhe ata që janë pa shtetësi. “ Mbreti” i sigurimeve shoqërore është pagimi i kontributeve, kjo do të thotë jo se ke lekë por se ke punë dhe nga puna krijon të ardhura. Çdo individ i bardh apo i zi, i huaj apo shqiptar, fshatar apo qytetar po punoi dhe mori të ardhura nga puna është i detyruar të paguaj dhe skema është e detyruar që kontributin që ke paguar ta kthej në përfitim pavarësisht shtetësisë, vendbanimit apo gjërave të tjera.  Në qoftë së mosha mesatare ka qenë 75 vjeç dhe burrat dilnin 62-63 vjeç e gëzonin pensionin 15 vjet por nëse tani jetojnë 83 dhe dalin 65 do të thotë se e gëzojnë 15 por 17-18 vjet. Por këto 2-3 vite që rriten janë kosto atëherë çfarë duhet bërë? Mënyra është kjo, ose do rritësh periudhën që punon të kontribuosh më shumë ose do ulesh pensioni. Rritja e moshës së pensionit është një nga mekanizmat që përdoret për të balancuar kontributet e paguara me përfitimet që merr, sepse në fund të fundit pensionet funksionojnë si skema të pastra financiare dhe mbi bazën e parimit privat nëse nuk ke lekë çfarë do japësh këtej? Ne e kemi realizuar një gjë të tillë, edhe me reformën e 2014 e kemi çuar moshën e daljes në pension për burra dhe gra në moshën 67 vjeç sigurisht e kemi bëre rritje të përshkallëzuar jo menjëherëdhe është parashikuar që në vitin 2056 të barazohet  mosha 67 vjeç për burrat dhe gratë, mosha e grave do rritet nga 2 muaj çdo vit ndërsa për burrat do fillojë rritja nga 2033 nga 1 muaj në vit që në 2056 të arrijë barazia.  A mund të ketë rrije moshe pensioni ? Askush nuk thotë që ka, askush nuk thotë që s’ka. Sepse në qoftë se njerëzit për shkak të kushteve të mira të jetesës, përparimit të shkencës, mjekësisë dhe të kujdesit që tregojnë do jetojnë më gjatë sigurisht që do balancohet raporti që thash me parë. Vendet e tjera për shembull e kanë bërë automatikisht 67 Greqia, Italia, Gjermania, ka vende të tjera si Islanda që e ka çuar 70, Gjermania po diskuton që tarrisë dhe ajo ta indeksoj. Ka një teori që është më normale që mosha e daljes në pension të indeksohet automatikisht me indeksin e rritjes së jetëgjatësisë.

-Nuk është e thënë përgjithmonë 2056-ta, mund të kemi ndryshime edhe më herët nëse e kërkon nevoja?

Për momentin nuk ka asnjë lloj plani dhe asnjë lloj nevoje të rritet mosha e daljes në pension por kjo nuk do të thotë që  nga viti 2035 të jenë këto faktor që janë, se në qoftë se sot lindin 22.000 fëmijë shqiptarënë qoftë se pas 10 vjetësh lindjet do të jenë 10.000 do të thotë që s’ka kontribues dhe do të gjendet një zgjidhje tjetër. Jo unë po askush nuk mund të thotë me siguri absolute që kjo s’ka për të ndodhur, sepse në fund të fundit pensionet përveçse janë çështje sociale janë çështje të pastra financiare. Kush do paguaj për të marrë kush.

-Rritja agresive e pensioneve të fshatit që të bashkohen me ato të qytetit.

With the stock, this is very difficult to achieve, we call those pensioners who have left the stock, because the pension is a product of the paid contribution and our scheme is currently very solidary, which means that there is a fairly large level of redistribution of income so that It is not possible for a person who worked in the village and today has a pension of say 80 thousand lek to be taken automatically and equated with the average pension in the city which is 180 thousand lek because then the concept is lost where is the difference between me who worked 35 years with a maximum salary with one who has worked in the village and receive a pension equally, is a discouragement of new paid contributors. If we decide that every Albanian, regardless of how many years of work he has, 15 or 35, we will guarantee you, say, a pension of 200,000 lek per month, then why should I pay the maximum salary? I will come to your salary, which is the minimum salary because if both are equal, we will receive 200 thousand lek. Why should I pay 300/400 thousand ALL per month in contributions and receive a pension of 340/400 thousand ALL per month when you pay 60/70 thousand ALL per month and receive 200 thousand ALL. If we look at the accumulation of lek that I make throughout my life with the maximum salary and how much I get, we also see that we are different from those who are on the minimum salary, that is, we today who have high salaries, almost 40-50 thousand people in Albania are paid with the maximum salary they accumulate is say 100 ALL throughout life, we get 55-60 ALL. The value of 40 ALL is for redistribution to others, while those who are paid minimum wage accumulate 100 ALL, and receive 130 ALL. As an economist, we will make a calculation, is it better to pay 400,000 ALL per month and receive 400,000 ALL pension or to pay 70,000 ALL and receive 200,000 ALL? What happened with the 2014 reform is that we have made the same standard, the same criteria, the same pension calculation formula, for those who live in the countryside and those who live in the city, and this will be softened and equalized because it is the same criterion, they will be equalized only by the amount of contributions paid. Today, although peasants and farmers pay about 40% of the contribution because the rest is subsidized by the state budget, when they retire, they are equal to an employee in the middle of Tirana. The formula itself and the system itself, if the citizens will participate in the scheme, automatically equalize the self-pension, because it is a matter of how much you paid, how much you will receive. If before until 2014 there was the village scheme and the city scheme, today it is only the national pension scheme, so there the "king" of the matter is the salary on which you paid the contributions and the years you paid and the scheme he will not know that you are a farmer, a former cooperative or a professor.

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