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Ekonomia

Men in Albania 'hold' the wallet of home and business, women 'take it in turn' increasing their number in politics

Men in Albania 'hold' the wallet of home and business, women

March 8 is International Women's Day. It is time to appreciate the achievements of women, demand equality and fight for basic rights and freedoms.


In Albania, although progress has been made in gender equality, there are still big differences, especially when comparing economic "power". Men are paid more than women and dominate business leadership positions, although women have higher levels of university education.

In contrast, the weight of women in politics has increased, with a significant part of the cabinet consisting of female ministers.

The number of ministers has increased more and more. 70% of the current government consists of female ministers, ranking among the top 10 countries in the world where women have great political power. Globally, only 14 countries have at least 50% women holding ministerial positions in the national cabinet, based on data from UN Women and The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU).

However, the Assembly is dominated by men, as they make up about 65% of the total number of deputies, according to INSTAT, although the weight of female deputies has been increasing. In 2021, the participation rate of women is 35.7%. Among the eight parliamentary committees, the largest participation of women is seen in the "Commission for work, social affairs and health" and the "Commission for education and public information", respectively 61.9% and 57.9%.

In Europe, according to Eurostat, Sweden has the highest percentage of women in the Parliament, with around 50%, followed by Finland with 46%, Belgium with 43%, while the lowest, Hungary and Malta with 13% each.

Fewer women business owners

According to official INSTAT data, 24.1% of enterprises in 2021 had a female owner or administrator, with a decrease of 1.4 percentage points compared to the previous year. The percentage of women owners was higher in small enterprises (with 1-4 employees) with 24.2%.

This share is much lower than the European average of 35%, according to other Eurostat data.


The highest percentage is recorded by Latvia (46%), followed by Poland and Sweden respectively (43%) and Estonia (41%).

Albania is third from the bottom. After our country, the lowest percentages of women managers are registered in Cyprus (21%) and Luxembourg (22%).

In the country, the largest number of female entrepreneurs and administrators is in Tirana, with 32.2% of the total, and the lowest in Berat, with 15.5%.

Men are paid better, but women in management pass them

The average gross monthly salary of women in 2021 was ALL 55,760, according to INSTAT data. Compared to a year ago, women's salaries are 7.9% higher.

In general, women in the country are paid less than men. In 2021, the gap was 4.5%, ie that the average salary of women in the country is 4.5% lower than that of men (the latter in 2021 was on average 58.4 thousand ALL).

Compared to a year ago, when it was 6.5%, the gap has narrowed, as men's wages grew at a lower rate than women's (3.4%, compared to almost 8%).

There is only one profession where women outperform men. If you are an "Administrative and Commercial Manager" you are paid an average of 172,000 ALL per month, or almost 12% more than the same position for men (the latter receive an average of 154,000 ALL per month).

Administrative and commercial managers are the highest paid profession group in the country, for both sexes. Compared to a year ago, for this profession group, the salaries of male executives increased at a higher rate than that of women, narrowing the gap, compared to 17% that was in 2020.

The second highest paid profession for both men and women is "Manager of production and specialized services", but the highest paid are men, who receive an average of 130,000 ALL per month, or almost 14% more than the other gender.

Out of 37 groups of professions, for which INSTAT reports data, only for three of them (Employees in electro-technology professions; Administrative and commercial managers; Metalworking and machine assembly workers), women are paid more. For the other two the salaries are almost the same (Legislators, senior civil servants and executive directors; Service and support workers). In the other categories, men dominate - (See the chart: Average gross monthly salary by group of professions and gender).

Men are paid more, but women are more educated with higher education



Although men are generally paid more than women, the latter are more likely to complete higher education.

According to INSTAT, in 2021, about 19.5% of women over 25 in the country had completed higher education, compared to 16.9% of men. In recent years, the increase in the weight of girls who choose to attend university is higher than that of men.

The number of graduates in higher education in the academic year 2020-21 was approximately 33,000 students, among whom girls accounted for 66.1%. The percentage of female graduates compared to the previous year has increased by 0.8 percentage points.

30.2% of female graduates were in "business administration and laws", compared to 29.7% of males. "Health and wellness" is the second most preferred branch, with 18.3% of the total, while for men it is "engineering, production and construction", with 18.9%.

Savings keep men

Men in Albania 'hold' the wallet of home and business, women

According to INSTAT in 2021 there were a total of 3.5 million deposit accounts in the family sector, of which 57% are held by men.

In the same line, it is men who bear more responsibility in obtaining a loan. Out of about 400,000 loans received by family members, 57% of them were in the name of men.

Women live longer

Because they live longer, the median age of women in Albania is higher than that of men.

In 2022, the median age of Albanian women reached 39.1 years (median age means that 50% of women are below this age and 50% above this age), increasing by almost 11 months per year, INSTAT reported.

While the median age of men reached 37.3 years or 2.3 years lower than women. The median age of men in Albania, as everywhere in the world, is lower than that of women because they have a lower life expectancy of at least 5 years.

The median age of the population in our country is increasing rapidly from year to year, signaling the aging of the population. During one year, the median age for both sexes almost increased by one year, while in the last 10 years it increased by 4.6 years for women and 5.5 years for men.

Men in Albania 'hold' the wallet of home and business, women
Both men and women in Albania work longer in Europe

Albanian workers, both male and female, have the longest working hours in Europe, reaching up to 50 hours a week, according to a Eurofund report on working conditions and future implications, which includes EU member states. -, the United Kingdom, Norway, Switzerland, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.

Albanian men work about 50 hours a week, while women work about 45 hours a week. Greeks, Serbs, Montenegrins, Romanians and citizens of Kosovo are ranked after Albanians.

The high working hours in Albania seem to be related to two factors, firstly work even during weekends and secondly the high level of self-employed, which Albania has a record in the region with about 36% of the total employed.

According to the report, on average, in the EU-27, men reported working a little more than 42 hours a week, while women worked approximately 37 hours./ Monitor